Global warming (GW) which threatens all mankind and the Earth, appears as a chain of processes that stimulate one another by getting into cause and effect contact with global crisis. At the same time, both crises are closely connected with global political crisis – global crisis of democracy as well as crises of field of fundamental human rights and freedoms, world order and political systems. We think that the struggle against each of them separately will not be enough without reviewing these three crises together and attempting their parallel solution simultaneously.
Considering of role of changes taken place in human factor and mind in both GW and global economic development is very important in solution of these problems and prevention of re-occurrence of this type of crises. We consider it important to study the specific connection between GW and human factor which is the most important factor of global democratic crisis and both crises in a scientific way.
It is possible to explain global warming either with increasing of radiation of the Earth by the Sun or with changes occurring in turning of this radiation into different energies. According to the well-known scientist Shapley, the Sun can not change to a considerable extent within 20 milliard years. If we consider that the GW takes place in the last century, then it wouldn’t be correct to explain it with changes taking place in the Sun. In that case, we need to search for the reasons of GW in radiation of the Earth, factors which influence the transformation of the Sun beam on the Earth and effect of human activity on the same factors.
According to us, the warming balance of the Earth is of synergetic nature connecting with processes in three different spheres – both in theosphere, biosphere and noosphere. The participation of a man in warming balance is connected with physical changes he made in theosphere on one hand and his organization of biosphere as a living creature on the other hand as well as noosphere – creation of taxis – creation of artificial cultural surroundings differing from natural space. Though these three spheres obey quite different natural laws, they are closely connected with one another at the same time.
But the fact on emission of heating gases of global warming into the atmosphere in huge volume, has already been justified scientifically and today the attention of the world community has mostly been drawn to this problem. But it should not be forgotten that there are such other factors today that they begin to influence heating balance of the Earth after these factors reach a certain extent. The GW must be studied as process with prolifactor in this respect.
We consider it necessary to review the factors which don’t yet play serious roles in global warming but are expected to turn into serious problems in near future and role of human being in different spheres of appearing of these problems.
Changes occurring in theosphere
Changes occurring on the Earth’s crust as a result of human activity; the famous Russian scientist V.I. Vernadski writes in his book named “Biosphere and noosphere” that “There are discovered appearances out of the boundaries of it in our planet, especially in the composition of the Earth’s crust….there may be discovered three appearances here: a) special location of elements of periodic system; b) their complexity; v) their unequal distribution”. It should be noted that unlike other living beings, a conscious man influences the appearances discovered in the structure of the Earth’s crust with his volitional activity and changes them. Such as, Vernadski writes that polynuclear elements rarely prevail on the Earth’s crust. A man interfered with each of three appearances and made serious changes to them.
Changes occurring on the Earth’s crust of elements of periodic system; it is clear that first of all, people use the elements like Ca, Ba, Fe, Al, Mg, C, O and others – just out of polynuclear elements in the formation of taxis more, then because of that, the correlation of polynuclear elements which rarely prevail in natural case in the Earth’s crust with mononuclear elements, caused mononuclear elements to prevail absolutely in the Earth’s crust as a result. Though we don’t have concrete scientific facts on the number of atoms of elements and their role in the regulation of heating of the Earth, we may say that if the previous heating balance of the Earth has been determined with “rare prevalence” of just polynuclear elements, then changes occurring in the comparison with the elements of different nuclear in the structure of the Earth’s crust influences global warming.
Violation of unequal distribution of elements in the Earth’s crust; the unequal distribution of elements in the Earth’s crust coincided with heating balance of the Earth which had existed till the crisis. This appearance also plays a serious role in the regulation of heating balance of the Earth along with most geophysical events. The natural unequal distribution of the elements of the Earth’s crust is violated as a result of human activity. Today, the production of raw material existed in different areas of the Earth’s crust in million and even milliard tons as well as their removal from the same areas, can not make problems in the regulation of heating balance of the Earth by just the same areas. On the other hand, just not all the surface of the Earth gets Sun ray in the same level and just parallel with it, not all the surface of the Earth takes part in transformation of the Sun ray into other kind of energies in the same volume, in that case we may note that the changes taking place in the chemistry of the Earth crust as a result of human activity in theosphere, violation of natural unequal distribution of elements, have serious effects on heating balance of the Earth.
3. Bringing of appearances of the Earth’s crust from static state to dynamic state; the influence of a man to theosphere is also connected with his bringing the static appearances of the Earth’s crust to dynamic position – action. Such as, the appearances of chemical structure of the Earth’s crust are static…. But a man has created new dynamic appearance by giving these appearances mobility. Today, the materials used for production of cars, trains, ships and planes existing in this world as well as milliards tons of moving elements act as transformers different from their own static cases.
Changes occurring in biosphere
The Earth’s crust is irreplaceable basis for life – live creatures. Vernadski writes: “Life is closely connected with the structure of the Earth’s crust, it enters its mechanisms and plays unusual role in these mechanisms that it can’t exist without it”. Therefore, changes occurring in the emergences of the Earth’s crust, influence the life emergences and cause serious problems in them. One of these mechanisms is a mechanism which transforms the Sun beam into different energies that there are made changes in this process of transformation with the increase or decrease of life and finally it seriously influences global warming balance. Thus, changes taking place in theosphere cause serious changes in biosphere in their succession.
There are observed two types of changes on the Earth surface which is one of the key elements of biosphere.
1.Artificial changes taking place on the Earth surface as a result of human activity; Human being exists as a part of alive life but his impact on biosphere leads to serious results by being more complicated unlike other living beings. The participation of human being in biosphere has two natures in itself.
a)This participation is connected with changes made in the life of other living beings – fauna and flora. Such as, human being has removed different types of plants and animals from biosenosis with his activity. Thus, there have happened serious changes in sequence and circulation of bio-chain. And there must be specified which role it plays in GW.
b) The participation of a man in changes occurring in biosenosis is connected with changes in his biomass – human increase. In this regard, a man’s role in global warming can firstly be measured with changes made in organization of biosphere. According to V.I.Vernadski: “biosphere can be considered as the region of the Earth’s crust caught by transformers which transforms cosmic radiation into ground energy – electric, chemical, mechanical and heating…. The Sun ray – carrier of cosmic energy – not only awakens mechanisms which transform it into chemical energy but also creates these transformers themselves as live nature”. Hence, pressing of bio-transformers which act as energy transformers, that is, increasing of transformers which transform Sun rays into heating energy, and in place of that, decreasing of bio-transformers which transform the same rays into chemical, electric and other type of energies, play an important role in climate change.
2. Natural changes occurring in the living world without human intervention; there is correlation between the life activity of different living species which make up biosenosis and global warming. Vernadski notes it right that “if we forget the rare relation of biosphere with the structure of cosmic mechanism, then the appearances occurred may not be understood…. Life constitutes an important part of atoms of matter which makes up the Earth surface… nothing occurs in chemical appearances of biosphere without depending on life”. We may ascribe the following to these connections.
a) First of all, green vegetable cover in biosphere takes an active part in an exchange of heating”. The first of these connections is the process of photosynthesis. Living beings form chemical combinations by using the Sun ray on the Earth’s crust – this happens with assimilation and dissimilation processes in living organisms. Photosynthesis is just included in this type of chemical transformers. The degradation of vegetable cover directly leads to regulation of oxygen balance of atmosphere, weakening of ozone layer in an indirect way, and this to increase of radiation which has a fatal effect on other transformers of the Earth’s crust. The green plants both grown on the Earth and well develops in the sea, take active parts in this process. V.I.Vernadski writes that the green protists of the ocean are principal transformers which transform light energy into chemical energy of our planet. For global pollution of the ocean destroys green protists, it creates a serious problem in transformation of light energy into chemical energy.
b) Influence of quality changes occurring in living world to heating balance of the Earth; changes occurring in the form and structure of green plants influence their participation in transformation mechanisms. I.Vizner, a botanist, drew such a conclusion as a result of his research work that “light – Sun beam- influences the form of plants more than hot”. Thus, plants remove one part of the beam falling on the Earth from the heating balance by changing their forms. The transformation gets weakened as such plants get lessened. Along with it, increasing of degenerated plants in recent years may result in formation of vegetable cover with new structure that it may lead to marginalization of plants with natural genetic structure. This process assumes actuality regarding other living beings, too. Such as, every living being takes part in heating regulation with its body as a physical thing. V.I.Vernadski writes: “Living beings reflect the Sun ray as the Earth concentrates do. The body surface of living beings plays a special role in the radiation of the Earth by obeying optical laws”.
3. Influence of quantity changes of living beings to heating balance of the Earth; Every type of living being directly plays self-characteristic role not only in biosenosis but also in heating balance of the world and separate types of living beings have separate heating balances accordingly. The living mass act as an accumulator which collects energy in a certain extent and every type has special capacity of heating. Thus, there should be noted relation between changes occurring in the number of living beings and global warming balance. The research works show that the number of big animals on the Earth in the last hundred years – bison, elephants, hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, wild buffalos and others have decreased from millions to ten thousands and even to several hundreds. The parallelism between the extinction of animals with big bodies and global warming shows that these factors are not less important. We think that coming of dinosaurs from biosenosis thousands years ago, has had its negative effect on heating balance of the Earth.
a) Quantity changes of human bio-mass – relation of global famine OBESITY with GW; the American scientists have already defined connection between human fattening and GW. It has been identified that as the heating gases increase in the atmosphere, people intend to put on weight and therewith, they decrease surplus of carbon compounds in the atmosphere by collecting more carbon compounds in their organs. And it influences heating balance of atmosphere. And how much people lose weight, they have less opportunity for collecting carbon gases of atmosphere into their bodies. From this point of view, there should be considered the connection between global famine and heating balance of atmosphere in the world.
4. The effect of global warming on life; it should be noted that life and global warming mutually influence each other. Such as, violation of heating balance of the Earth creates serious changes in the borders of life. The living beings live in biosphere between -253 degrees and +180 degrees. Thus, heating limit of biosphere is restricted with 433 degrees. As a result of changing of this limit, some living beings go out of biosphere automatically, some are subject to mutation or transformation and there is formed disbalance in ricochet order in heating balance as a result of losing of traditional roles of these living beings in heating exchange. It should be noted that different living beings take part in heating exchange with different intensity in different degrees. There begins to form new types parallel with it that it is necessary to find out the effect of these types on global warming. And the discovery of special pathogens unknown to science up to now, shows that that problem has reached dangerous limit.
Changes occurring in neosphere
Noosphere has discovered new transformers and transformation processes which seriously differ from the transformers of the Earth, just these new non-material transformers have exceptional role in GW. Ch. Shukhert calls the period started with appearing of a conscious person on the stage of history as Psychozoic era. Psychozoic era is characteristic for moral structurization of a person as conscious creature. Though moral life appeared as quite different form, the philosophers like Gobs, Spinoza and Leybnich considered so that the processes of moral life – in one regard are homogeneous with the processes of external nature and natural life which are closely connected with each other. Therewith, it becomes necessary to consider the effects of the processes taking place in moral sphere of human being. Even well-known philosopher Garbart thinks so that “the objective laws of moral life are quite the same with the objective laws of the sky of stars”. If it is so, we have to admit the fact that the violation of the objective laws occurring in one field influences the other field, too. Then, we must see the connection between moral violation of humanity and global warming.
The special role of a person in global warming is closely connected with his conscious activity, social organization – type and culture of the society.
1. The connection of psychical energy with GW; Human being consists of both body as bio-mass and soul different from it and human life is inseparable and single despite of all differences. Costa Ben Luk proves such an opinion that “the condition of human consciousness influences his body”. If we accept this truth which psychology and other biological sciences also confirm the effect of consciousness on the body, then we must admit the effect of consciousness of humanity on matter – nature which exists as the second body of human being. Therefore, it becomes necessary to look for one of the reasons for global warming just in changes occurring in consciousness of human being. Thus, it becomes clear that the changes occurring in one field of human consciousness create changes on other fields, too. If we consider that different activity of human soul requires different energy, then we must admit that the limitation of soul activity in one field results in releasing of certain energy. The internal psychological energy and connection of its effect on global warming with human mind and its attributes, especially public relations are less studied and focused field. We think that the factors which cause global warming should include human mind – his psychical energy. The role of consciousness factor in global warming appears in the following forms:
a) The effect of conscientious attitude of human being towards natural surroundings on global warming; A person’s attitude towards the Earth’s crust, life and other living beings is first of all connected with sense. V.I.Vernadski writes: “Our ideas on living organism influences philosophy, religious achievements and admissions extremely. Such ideas do not pass without influence to political consciousness and philosophy of governance”. We may say that different philosophical acknowledgement plays different roles in global warming under the influence of such ideas here. Such as, the first work of democratic consciousness requires acknowledgement of one individual before others and other living beings as democratic consciousness leads to admission of human being in unity of life and space. The animal rights have already been valid in serious meaning in democratic countries today though human rights are not protected in some anti-democratic countries. Even some European countries have started discussions on material rights. With the adoption of material right, everything which constitutes the Earth’s crust – mountains, valleys, lakes, rivers and etc., gain rights as a whole and therewith human being saves the Earth’s crust which plays exceptional role in the transformation of the Sun rays from his irresponsible interference. The number correlation of democratic and anti-democratic countries in the world is still for anti-democratic countries and therefore, the people’s misguided attacks to the Earth’s crust are still continuing and GW is accelerating accordingly.
b) The effect of form of consumption of psychical energy on global warming; Human being transforms one part of total cosmic energy into psychical energy unlike other living beings. It should be noted that psychical energy has more heating effect than other types of energy for its nature. In other word, transformations of psychical energy seriously influence heating capacity of the Earth. According to the conservation of energy, psychical energy does not form out of nothing and does not disappear at all, it is simply changed from one form into another. Herewith, the inclusion of this new energy into the chain of energy transformations together with other energies, allows us to speak about its exceptional role in global warming.
v) The effect of scientific activity on global warming; according to V.I.Vernadski “New geological strength, scientific idea increases the evolution of biosphere of living matter and global warming increases parallel with this increase”. Thus, we may say that the role of human being in global warming is connected with scientific thinking as well. While evaluating noosphere, V.I. Vernadski writes: “Biosphere passes to a new condition – noosphere under the influence of scientific idea and human labor…..the transition of biosphere to noosphere accelerates the tempo of geological processes. And now what happens in biosphere, is connected with scientific idea and social activity of humanity… scientific outlook is the creation and expression of human soul, the same work is done by religious outlook, art, public and personal social life philosophy, idea…scientific outlook develops together with other fields of moral life of a person”. Regarding the changes taking place between the development of scientific thought and biosphere, V.I.Vernadski writes: “The course of scientific creativity is the force of changing of biosphere by human creativity… the appearance of changing of biosphere is inescapable appearance corresponding to the increase of scientific thought…these changes take place in biosphere not depending on human will – biosphere transforms to noosphere… there can not be geological effect without scientific thought”. Thus, we see that scientific development creates changes in biosphere irrespective of our will. We noted above that changes occurring in biosphere are accompanied with serious changes in teosphere. And there is drawn such a conclusion that scientific development causes geological changes and one of such geological changes is just global warming. The scientific thought changes not only biosphere but first of all noosphere. Changes occurring in noosphere include changes occurring in taxis – changes occurring in the structure and moral sphere of a society. V.I. Vernadski writes: “There sometimes occurs other transformation in a state structure – strengthening of its democratic basis connected with increasing of importance of science in the life of a state. Such as, science is democratic in more profoundness… a scientific thought is a part of the structure of biosphere”. Thus, for the fact that science is part of biosphere on one part and of political structure on the other hand, democratization factor attaches serious importance in global warming as democratization develops science and it develops biosphere in its turn.
g) The role of values in global warming; according to Senior Thomas B. Koluel, “Human values are based on ecological relations defined objectively with nature”. Thus, we must also admit the fact that the values of human being have ecological side as well. Thus, ecological relations work for global warming in those countries where human values are not appreciated in those societies. And also the violation of different freedoms – conscience freedom, interference with public and social life, has a negative effect on global warming.
d) The effect of public relations on global warming; a famous American writer E. Bern writes in his book “Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy for uninformed people” on psychical energy: “A big part of psychical energy is consumed for avoiding of any activity without doing anything… psychical energy is consumed for allocation of certain ideas and emotions for keeping order in psyche”. Thus, as it seems, when a person is free, most of his psychical energy is consumed for choice – allocation of ideas and emotions. On the contrary, when a person is not free, his psychical energy is accumulated and is transformed into other energies – chemical and heating energy as a result of other activities of a body that it would be wrong not to consider this factor in global warming. According to V.I. Vernadski: “the destruction or cessation of any activity of human consciousness has a stifling effect on others, too. Human activity can’t have hurting or destroying effect on science in art, religion, philosophy or public life”. If we consider it, we can claim that there is direct connection between the type of consciousness and its role in global warming. The type of consciousness is connected with the freedom problem of human being. A free man is a person who can control himself. As the self-control demands huge psychological strength and energy, there is used more energy for the regulation of moral sphere as people become free. Unlike it, unfree person consumes less energy in moral sphere but free person enters noosphere and from there either biosphere or directly theosphere. On the other hand, people become engaged in construction massively in a free condition. But as people are not involved in construction in unfree condition, larger human mass act as destructive force. Construction absorbs cosmic energy but destruction releases such energy on the contrary. The released energy is transformed into heating energy with different transformation mechanisms and accelerates global warming.
2. The effect of culture on global warming; the utilization of psychical energy is realized in two ways – by external creativity, internal-moral reconstruction. The external consumption of psychical energy influences taxis – creation of culture or artificial cosmos – and the creation of cosmos in its turn influences global warming in different ways. V.I. Vernadski writes: “There has appeared new type of energy at the borders of live matter in recent millenniums and increasing rapidly. This energy is connected with life activity of human society. This new form-biochemical energy may be called energy of human culture – cultural biochemical energy”. Culture directly influences transformers of the Earth’s crust and transformation mechanisms. On the other hand, the Earth’s surface absorbs some part of the Sun ray and turns into the land energy, returns some part of it and the other part is turned into other energies. The people have closed the doors of important part of the Earth’s surface against transformers by building roads, residential areas and cities. Along with it, the returning rays increase more than the absorbed rays in volume, that is, the Earth’s surface absorbs less part of the Sun ray and returns more part. And the ray returned to atmosphere is transformed into repeated heating energy. As a result, as though, atmosphere is exposed to double radiation. Today, we could find close connection between total area of the Earth’s crust remained under aerodromes, railways and asphalt roads as well as cities and other residential areas existing in the world and global warming. We need to note the role of new synthetical covers especially. The field of covering of stylish buildings with new high quality materials may create “mirror effect” which may be measured by millions of hectares and irradiate atmosphere like the Sun.
3. The role of labor in global warming; first of all, human being himself who is gigantic creator of labor, acts as a new transformer on the Earth’s crust. In other words, a man consumes different energies for the usage of material in the work process, especially in the physical work. But appearance of mental work and parallel with the development of new equipment and technology, a man yields his place to the equipment working with other mechanisms as a transformer in the labor field. As a result, the huge army of unemployed people formed, in other words, decreasing of physical labor, do not “influence” global warming less. As Stanislav Lemin who studies the history of technological development, writes in his book called “All amount of technology”: “as the fate of mere civilization is not specified by its regulating effect on counter contact with nature, new civilization destroys the balance of nature” civilizations formed by the concrete type of labor gives a push to dangerous processes which are included in the group of GW.
4. The role of humanity, social organization on global warming; Humanity takes part in organization of the Earth’s surface in direct and indirect way. The organization requires the consumption of huge energy in itself. Therefore, energy is released as organization in human society weakens, the released psychical energy can not influence global warming. According to V.I. Vernadski “the sate of non-organization differs from mechanisms which have condition restored ceaselessly”. But global warming appears with the violation of ceaseless restoration which is connected with non-organization in itself.
5. The mutual influence between human character and global warming; the other field where climate and social condition have mutual influence, is human characters. Character can be accepted as a chance of transforming certain idea into force. Character is closely connected with social structure in itself and is not a stable process, it changes depending on climate and social condition, as well as human character changes climate and social condition through contraindication. The ethnographist Malinovski writes that “the character difference of a person of any place changes fast when social structure is quite different”. Character also acts as real force. The famous psychoanalyst V. Raikh writes in his book named “Characteroanalysis”: “Character structure is frozen sociological process of certain time… the ideology of society can be material force in such a case that it will factually change character structure of people”. Thus, character acts as an agent which transforms the ideology of a society into real material force and then, into the defined energy. If we admit the connection of social structure with climate on the other hand, then we may note the mutual relations of climate with character and social structure. The human character influences social structure and social structure influences climate in these relations.
First of all, in philosophy, it is possible to find the confirmation of connection between GW and events taken place in human society. The thoughts of the Spanish philosophist Kh. Ortega Gasset are interesting in this regard. He writes: “The second half of XIX century is a historical period in the whole world, the fact that the importance of life interests of the masses has assumed importance for them and government people really and ideologically, has taken the first place in the world history”. Thus, if we compare the century of struggle for the interests of the masses with global warming, then we can include this struggle in the list of reasons for global warming. Is there really connection between public-political movements and geological changes? It is clear that public and political changes are closely connected with the self actualization process of human being. Abraham Gorold Maslow writes in his book named “Boundaries of human psyche”: “When we consider full actualization of human opportunities-society in full – it is only possible in some “favorable conditions”…a person must have a good living condition and good friends for his being a good person…a good society is the one which creates a favorable condition for full development and disclosure of opportunities of a person… the first and key problem consists of necessary and important appearance of a good man”. Thus, as it seems, a good person – that is, a perfect person appears in the conditions of normal society on one hand and normal nature on the other hand. The appearance of a bad person on the dependence of counter-tie, depends on unfavorable public condition and nature and on the contrary, a bad person forms bad surroundings and society, the societies which cause deterioration of people’s material continuously, these societies also lead to natural spooling of a bad person that such destroyed nature is followed by global warming.
The famous American philosopher E. Toffle writes in his book named “The shock of future”: “Social changes are connected with chemical changes in the composition of atmosphere, changing of climate, fertility of soil and other factors”. The most different representatives of science have voiced enough valuable thoughts on the connection of human activity with climate and other geographical factors in different periods of time. From this point of view, the research works of J. Lambroson are especially interesting. He writes on the connection of criminality with geographical factors in his famous book named “Criminal person”: “Our different inclinations depend on heating… Nations do not play any roles in public life in hot climates… an economic and political condition weakens metrological influence”. Thus, it becomes clear that events taking place in climate have direct events on the activeness and direction of human activity. If hot climate causes the increase in crime, mild climate causes positive public activity on the contrary. If we accept this influence as a turning process, then we may say that a man gives the surroundings more heating in his criminal activity. If we consider Lombroso’s thought “an economic and political condition decreases the influence of climate” and modern scientific views on close connection of GW with a new economic condition, then we must admit the fact that political condition plays an exceptional role in global warming. Herewith, we can confirm the fact that wars, ethnical and religious conflicts and antidemocratic processes have played important roles in global warming in the last 100 years. It has already been proved scientifically that there are observed serious changes in the chemical composition of the areas where revolutions or huge social changes take place. We think that such changes occur not only in the chemical composition but also in physical parameters of atmosphere. One of the same parameters is the heating balance of atmosphere.
Article from articlesbase.com
Global warming could do more than just melt polar ice. It could change our maps, and displace people from cities and tropical islands. See all National Geographic videos: video.nationalgeographic.com
Video Rating: 3 / 5